What Is Ubuntu? History, Types, and Advantages – Linux is a family of operating systems similar to UNIX. This operating system is open-source and free for anyone. Linux can also be said as one of the popular operating systems that are widely used by computer users. Even the application of this operating system is not only limited to smartphones or computers. But in various types of hardware such as cars, household appliances, desktops to corporate servers.
When talking about the Linux operating system, of course, there will be no end, considering that Linux is open-source. In other words, a lot of Linux distributions that have been developed by developers are adapted to their functions. However, there is one Linux distribution that is famous for its convenience, namely Ubuntu.
Although Ubuntu is included in the Linux distribution section, there are several things that distinguish this operating system from other versions of Linux. Both in terms of operation and in terms of appearance. For a more detailed explanation, consider the meaning of Ubuntu and its history, types, advantages, and disadvantages below.
- What Is Ubuntu?
- Ubuntu History
- Types of Ubuntu OS
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Ubuntu
What Is Ubuntu?
Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian. Ubuntu is distributed as free open-source software which was released on October 20, 2004. Officially, Ubuntu is released in three different editions based on their functionality. Namely Desktop (for personal computers), Server (for servers and cloud computing), and also Core (for IoT devices and robots). All editions of Ubuntu can be run on computers or virtual machines only.
This Ubuntu project was developed by Canonical Ltd and several other developer communities. Canonical Ltd is a company owned by a South African entrepreneur by the name of Mark Shuttleworth. The company provides security and support updates for each release of Ubuntu, starting from the release date until reaching a specified end-of-life (EOL) date.
Since its release, Ubuntu can be said to be the operating system of choice for many Linux distribution users who are beginners because of the ease of installing and operating it. Especially with the default interface of the latest Ubuntu from the Desktop edition is GNOME, where users are provided with a reliable, stable, clean, and minimalist decoration.
Ubuntu is released every seven months with standard support, while long-term support (LTS) is released every two years. Regarding the latest release with standard support currently, it is 22.10 (Jammy Jellyfish) which is supported for 9 months, and the latest long-term support is 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish).
The initial goal of Ubuntu is to create a Linux desktop operating system that is easy to use by computer users. Since its first release on October 20, 2004, Canonical releases a version of Ubuntu every 6 months. Each release will receive 9 months of free support (18 months prior to 13.04) with conservative high-impact and low-risk system updates, security fixes, and bug fixes.
Ubuntu is a Debian project. Where this operating system package is based on a package from the unstable Debian branch. Ubuntu uses Debian’s (APT and Synaptic) package formats and package management. Ubuntu and Debian packages are often incompatible with each other. This means packages may need to be rebuilt from the source for use on Ubuntu or Debian.
On July 8, 2005, Mark Shuttleworth, the owner of Canonical Ltd, founded the Ubuntu Foundation and provided initial funding of US$10 million. Then right on October 31, 2011, Mark Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 14.04 would support smartphones, tablets, and Smart TVs.
Types of Ubuntu OS
Generally, the Ubuntu operating system has several types that users can choose according to their individual needs. Each type also has different functions and uses. For example server needs, education, Smart TV, and studio need to be devoted to the development of smartphones. Here’s a little information about some of the Ubuntu variants that users need to know.
1. Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Desktop is a special operating system for users of desktop devices. It can even be said to be the most standard version of Ubuntu compared to its kind and easy to operate. Like Windows, with this operating system, users can run a series of software for their daily needs. For example for work productivity, multimedia software to web browsers.
2. Ubuntu Server
As the name suggests, Ubuntu Server is more devoted to being an operating system on a server. The difference between this Ubuntu Server and other versions is that it does not have a desktop environment display. This is not surprising, considering that generally a server rarely has a desktop display or even does not use it at all.
3. Ubuntu TV
This version of Ubuntu is more devoted to Smart TVs that can run an operating system for operation. The purpose of developing Ubuntu TV is due to see the market needs for Smart TVs that are growing rapidly.
4. Ubuntu Touch
Ubuntu Touch is a type of Ubuntu whose development is specifically for use on smartphones. Initially, this version of Ubuntu is believed be able to be a competitor of Android. However, a few years later, things didn’t turn out as expected. Considering Android has gained a lot of support and also popularity among operating systems for smartphones. Seeing these conditions, Canonical company officially canceled this project in 2017.
5. Ubuntu Studio
In this version, its functions and uses are more intended for users who work in the multimedia field. For example for video, photo, and audio editors. Ubuntu Studio provides several features to support professional editor productivity. These features include a real-time kernel, a lob-latency kernel, and a special display for special access to the Ubuntu repository.
Kubuntu stands for KDE with Ubuntu. Seeing this statement, it is not surprising that Kubuntu uses KDE as its desktop environment. Initially, Kubuntu was sponsored by Canonical Ltd. However, since 2012, the sponsor has changed to Blue System.
Lubuntu is one of the Ubuntu projects developed with a lighter, less resource-consuming, and efficient system. This operating system uses LXDE as its desktop environment. This version can be said to be a rival of Xubuntu, which also designed a system with low specifications. So it can be used on old computers.
Gobuntu is a type of Ubuntu that provides completely free distribution of software. Unfortunately in 2008, the Gobuntu project was deemed too much. So Canonical Ltd has officially ended the Gobuntu project with version 8.04. But in 2009, it was announced again that Gobuntu 8.04.1 was the last release of Gobuntu.
Edubuntu is a variation of Ubuntu specifically designed for use in schools/classrooms. Regarding the appearance of the Edubuntu desktop itself, it still uses GNOME and GDM as its display manager. Some of the applications included in Edubuntu are a combination of GNOME and KDE applications. Of course, priority is given to school education applications.
Not much different from Lubuntu, Xubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. This version of Ubuntu is aimed at users who use computers with lower specifications that are more efficient. Xubuntu uses Xfce as the desktop environment view.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ubuntu
Like operating systems in general, Ubuntu also has several advantages and disadvantages. To find out in-depth the advantages and disadvantages of Ubuntu, users can refer to the following points.
Advantages of Ubuntu
- Open-source and free – This means that users can use Ubuntu for free without costing a penny and even users are free to change the source code for personal use.
- Easy to use – Maybe a lot of computer users think that this Linux-based operating system requires special skills to operate. But in fact, there are several Linux distributions that are designed to be user-friendly. One of these includes Ubuntu itself.
- Strong security – When talking about security in the operating system, of course, we cannot interpret for sure “whether this system is safe or not from viruses”. But in the case of Ubuntu, it’s different, considering that this operating system provides a strong Firewall and virus protection. Even Ubuntu users don’t need additional applications like antivirus.
- Extensive support – Because Ubuntu is open source, it’s no wonder that there is a lot of support from various communities ready to help users if there are problems. There are several supports that users can access. Among these are Ask Ubuntu or LinuxQuestions .
- Customizable – In other words, users can choose from a variety of available desktop environments. Even users can also set it to look like Windows or any other operating system they want.
- There are several types of Ubuntu – There are several types of Ubuntu that have their own characteristics. Starting from Kubuntu, Edubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu Server and many more.
- Supports several software in Windows – In Ubuntu also supports some software like Windows. Among them are Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, VLC, to LibreOffice .
- Has Thunderbird service – This operating system also has a feature called Thunderbird, which serves to give users access to email such as Exchange, Gmail, Hotmail, and so on.
- The lack of specifications needed by the device – We know that running the Ubuntu operating system does not require high device specifications. For example, in terms of hardware, a minimum of 700MHz processor, 512MB RAM, and 5GB storage space.
Disadvantages of Ubuntu
- Limited applications – Although some Windows software supports this operating system, it is still limited to that.
- Software and hardware compatibility – Sometimes under certain conditions, there are drivers that do not work properly. This may be because the hardware is not identified.
- Lots of unimpressive games – There are some game titles available for operating systems based on Linux distributions, but basically these operating systems are not designed for gaming enthusiasts.
Ubuntu is one of the popular distributions and is widely used by Linux users. It is possible that Ubuntu is better known for its ease of operation. In addition, there are several types of Linux distributions based on Ubuntu. Of course, each type has different functions and characteristics, ranging from Ubuntu Desktop, Ubuntu Server, Kubuntu, Edubuntu, and so on.
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What is GNOME?
GNOME is one of the most popular desktop environments and is widely used by Linux users.
What is the difference between Ubuntu Desktop and Server?
Ubuntu Desktop is used for personal computers in general, while Ubuntu Server is devoted to server and cloud computing needs.
Is Ubuntu free for all users?
Of course, Ubuntu is open-source and free to use by anyone, even users are free to change and modify the source code.