What is a DBMS? Definition, Functions, Advantages, Types of DBMS
What is a DBMS? – Do you want to work as a programmer, data analyst, or database administrator? If yes, then you must first learn what a DBMS is and the concept of a DBMS.
The reason is, that the DBMS will facilitate your work in managing the database and the data in it. Fortunately, in this article, you will understand the meaning of DBMS, DBMS functions, and various DBMSs.
Curious right? Let’s read this article to the end!
What is a DBMS?
DBMS stands for Database Management System. While understanding DBMS is software used to manage databases, or collections of data that are connected.
In other words, in a DBMS there are one or many databases. Thanks to the DBMS, any data can be managed, manipulated, and processed into new forms of information.
This is because DBMS software has better capabilities than ordinary databases, namely:
- Construct – A DBMS can be used to build a database, as a place to store and process data.
- Define – A DBMS can define data so that it can be stored in the appropriate database.
- Manipulate – A DBMS can be used to manipulate data, according to the wishes of the user.
From the above capabilities, it is not surprising that DBMS is widely used to process data, especially in large numbers. DBMS also controls almost all industrial sectors such as technology, finance, health, and banking.
Because of its specific use, you must use a specific language when communicating with the DBMS. Namely, the programming language SQL (Standard Query Language). This language consists of two main types of commands, namely:
- Data Definition Language (DDL) – As the name implies, DDL is used to define the structure of tables and data. Some examples of DDL commands include CREATE, DROP, and ALTER.
- Data Manipulation Language (DML) – DML is used to manipulate data after it is defined. Examples of DML commands that are widely used are INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
So far, you have learned the meaning of DBMS. In the next point, we invite you to understand the purpose of the DBMS and its functions of the DBMS.
DBMS Objectives and DBMS Functions
In general, the main purpose of a DBMS is to make it easier for users to manage the database and manipulate the data in it. But more than that, the functions of a DBMS in particular are:
1. Data Dictionary Management
The first function of the DBMS is to manage the data dictionary. The data dictionary is a place to store data elements such as data fields, number of characters, data types, and their relationships to other data.
In addition, any changes to the data structure that occur will be recorded automatically in the data dictionary. So, it will be easier for you to find the data you need, because everything has been stored in the data dictionary.
2. Data Storage Management
The next DBMS function is to manage data storage. This means that with a DBMS, you can easily create and manage structures that will later be used as a place to store data.
Apart from being a storage area, the DBMS also provides various data entry options. In other words, you can define specifically how data is entered into the database.
This is very useful when you are dealing with a lot of multimedia data. For example images, videos, sounds, and even biometric data such as fingerprints and facial recognition.
3. Data Transformation & Presentation
Still related to the previous DBMS functions, you can use the DBMS to change the appearance of the data. This can be done, of course, after you set how to enter the data.
In other words, the data you input will automatically adapt to the data structure. For example, imagine you are managing a database for a multinational company.
End users from Indonesia will enter time data in 24-hour format. On the other hand, users from the United States will input the time in a 12-hour format.
Well, there is a difference in the way data entry at this time will not be a problem. Because you have defined how the time data will be processed according to its structure.
4. Security Management
Security management is the next DBMS function. With a DBMS, you can set specific user authorization. For example, who can only access the database and who can modify the database.
Not only that, but the DBMS also provides data encryption options, which is the process of converting data into random characters that are difficult to read. Well, you can use this encryption to protect sensitive data. For example passwords, bank account numbers, or credit card details.
5. Backup & Recovery Management
The last function of the DBMS is to manage backup and restore databases. Almost all modern DBMS already provide a backup feature, which you can set either manually or automatically.
If at any time there is damage to the system or storage media, you still have a copy of the database. That way, the time it takes for the system to recover is faster.
After learning about the purpose and function of DBMS, next, we invite you to get to know the concept of DBMS more deeply. Let’s see!
In general, the DBMS concept consists of several main components, including:
As briefly explained, a database is a container for storing table structures, which will later be populated by various data. Well, this data can be in the form of text, numbers, images, videos, sounds, and even geographic information.
In addition, you can also use the database to store relational data. A relationship occurs when two or more data from different tables are related. Data relations will produce new information called transactional data.
In the concept of DBMS, this software is what you know as a DBMS. You could say, the presence of a DBMS is to create a database and simultaneously manage the data in it.
On the other hand, without a DBMS, you cannot create a new database. Moreover, managing things related to data, such as adding, deleting, or manipulating data.
Hardware is hardware that is involved in processing data in the DBMS. This hardware can be a computer and its parts, such as a hard disk, processor, RAM, and keyboard.
Suppose you are running a DBMS software. So, you need a keyboard to input data. Later, the data will be processed with the help of the processor, before being physically stored on the hard disk.
4. Operating System
As you know, you can’t run a computer without an operating system built into it. Therefore, the operating system is also still one of the DBMS concepts.
In addition, DBMS software is also installed on top of the operating system. Therefore, make sure to choose a DBMS that is compatible with your OS. But fortunately, most DBMS software on the market is multiplatform.
This means that the software can be installed on popular operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Users are part of the DBMS concept whose existence is very much needed. Without a user, all forms of data and their relationships in the DBMS software cannot be utilized optimally.
In general, users or users of this DBMS are divided into three types, namely:
- Database Developer – A developer is someone responsible for designing and building a database according to the requirements that have been set.
- Database Administrator – The administrator is someone who is in charge of managing database access, monitoring database usage, and protecting the database from unwanted things, such as data leaks.
- Database End-User – End-user is someone who can access the database for data processing needs. For example to input, edit, or delete data.
After learning about the meaning of DBMS, the concept of DBMS, and the purpose of DBMS, it is time for you to know the advantages of DBMS. Let’s go to the next point!
5 Advantages of DBMS
Some of the advantages of DBMS that you can feel, include:
1. Facilitate Data Exchange
The first advantage of DBMS is that it facilitates the exchange and access of data. Because you can manage user access rights to the database according to their respective roles.
For example, Administrators can manage databases and grant access rights to other users. Meanwhile, other users can only input, edit, and delete data in the database.
That way, any data changes that occur can be known directly by the user. Provided, the user has pocketed access permissions.
2. Improve Data Security
Improving data security is the next advantage of DBMS. As you know, the more people who access the database, the greater the security risk that haunts it. For example, database theft takes advantage of the login details of one of the users.
Luckily a DBMS lets you set user permissions down to the smallest detail. That way, data security problems in the DBMS can be minimized.
3. Maintain Data Integrity
DBMS is very useful in maintaining the integrity or unity of the data in the database. The reason is that when you create a new database in a DBMS, you must prepare a detailed data structure first.
Thus, problems that arise due to user errors can be minimized. For example, inputting data in an improper format, or entering the same data many times.
4. Prevent Data Damage
One of the functions of a DBMS is to back up data. Backup itself is the process of copying the database from the DBMS to other storage media, such as cloud storage.
With the automatic backup and restore feature in the DBMS, users don’t have to bother doing regular database backups. Thus, the risk of data corruption that can occur at any time can be prevented to a minimum level.
5. Facilitate Decision Making
The last advantage of a DBMS is that it makes it easier for you to make decisions. Because you can use DBMS to process and manipulate data to produce new information.
Information derived from this DBMS has a high level of accuracy. So, you can make it one of the considerations when making an important decision.
3 DBMS Weaknesses
In addition to the advantages of DBMS, here we present some of the disadvantages of DBMS that you must know:
1. Adding Costs
DBMS requires a series of hardware, operating system, and other supporting software to run smoothly. In other words, you need to spend a lot of money on the operational needs of the DBMS.
Not to mention when you are overwhelmed with managing the database alone. This means that you need to hire someone else as a database administrator. This of course adds to the burden of costs that you have to spend.
2. Causes Data Complexity
The next weakness of DBMS is that it can cause data complexity.
With a DBMS, you are free to build many complete databases with their data structures. But the more databases, the more complicated the data management process.
This can confuse users. Or more fatally, an error occurred that resulted in data corruption.
3. Causes Incompatibility
The problem of incompatibility or incompatibility is the last weakness of DBMS. As you know, DBMS software providers always update their products regularly.
Unfortunately, software updates can bring about unfavorable changes. For example, the hardware or OS you are currently using is no longer supported by the DBMS.
Inevitably you have to replace the hardware or OS if you want to continue using the same DBMS software.
By this point, you have understood the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS. Next, we invite you to get to know the various DBMSs.
Based on the data modeling, various DBMS can be divided into three. What are those?
1. Relational Database Management System
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a variety of DBMS in which data is relational or interconnected. RDBMS is the most popular type of DBMS today. Some examples are MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Oracle.
Then, what is the difference between DBMS and RDBMS? You could say, DBMS is general software for databases. Whereas, RDBMS is a subset of DBMS in which data can be interconnected through two-dimensional tables.
Later, each table will consist of columns and rows. Columns are a place to define the structure, types, and attributes of data. Meanwhile, rows are used to store entries or data records.
2. Hierarchical Database Management System
A hierarchical Database Management System is a type of DBMS in which data is organized like a hierarchy. Later, the data will be arranged from top to bottom. Where the parent data is at the top, while the child data is at the bottom.
If traced, all data will have information in the form of parent-child relationships with other data, as long as they are still in the same hierarchy.
Some quite popular examples of Hierarchical DBMS are IBM System, Windows Registry, and RDM Mobile.
3. Network Database Management System
A network Database Management System is a variety of databases in which data is organized to form a network. Just like Hierarchical DBMS, data modeling in Network DBMS is also top-down.
But the difference is, in a Network DBMS, one child of data can come from several parent data, even those that have different hierarchies.
Well, examples of Network DBMS that are widely used include Integrated Data Store (IDS) and Raima Database Manager.
5 Popular DBMS Examples
In the previous point, you have learned about various DBMSs. Now, move on to getting to know some of the most popular DBMS examples. Let’s see!
MySQL is one of the most widely used DBMS examples. MySQL DBMS is open-source software. But now, it is owned by the Oracle company and published under the GNU license.
Advantages of MySQL:
- Can be downloaded and used for free (specifically MySQL Community Edition).
- The SQL DBMS commands are simple and easy to use, even for beginners.
- Supports multiple cloud computing platforms, such as AWS or Azure.
Disadvantages of MySQL:
- Scalability is lacking, so it is not suitable for building large-scale databases.
- Open-source support is only part of it, the rest you have to buy an official license.
- Does not support some standard SQL features.
MySQL is suitable for:
- Small-scale websites or web applications, do not require complex databases.
- Sistem OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) dan OLTP (Online Transaction Processing).
Another popular DBMS example is MariaDB. MariaDB is a DBMS software that is very similar to MySQL. Both in terms of issuing licenses, commands, and APIs, to available libraries.
Advantages of MariaDB:
- Strict data protection. There are features of checking passwords, authentication, and protection of user roles.
- Lots of interesting features, such as GIS support, dynamic columns, and handling of NoSQL databases.
- More agile performance, when compared to MySQL.
Disadvantages of MariaDB:
- The community is not too much, because it is still a new DBMS.
- Not 100% SQL language support, because the update version distance is quite far.
MariaDB is suitable for:
- Same as for MySQL, for small-scale websites and web apps. Like an online shop with local visitors.
Oracle is an example of a DBMS built and fully developed by the Oracle company. Although not an open-source DBMS, Oracle provides a free download option for users who want to try it.
- Supports the latest technological innovations, such as hybrid cloud computing.
- Solid user support and complete official documentation.
- Spacious capacity, suitable for building large-scale databases.
- The free Oracle features are minimal, while the paid version is very expensive (starting at IDR 200 million).
- Requires hardware with the best specifications, if you want it to be used smoothly.
- It is difficult to learn, so it is not suitable for beginners.
Oracle is suitable for:
- Various desktop, website, and mobile applications, especially those on a global or enterprise scale.
- Data warehouse to store data that amount to millions or even more.
Unlike Oracle, PostgreSQL is an example of a DBMS that is 100% open source. This means that this software belonging to the PostgreSQL Global Development Group can be used freely without a license, both for personal and commercial purposes.
Advantages of PostgreSQL:
- Scalability is quite good, so it can be developed periodically as needed.
- Supports custom data types, meaning that users are free to create their data types.
- Compatible with various third-party tools and libraries, to add to its features.
- Documentation is complete, but not consistent, so it has the potential to confuse users.
- Does not provide a database condition audit feature, meaning that users have to manually check the health of the database.
PostgreSQL is suitable for:
- Systems with complex data processing requirements, such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
- Data analysis and warehouse to process large-capacity data.
The last popular DBMS example is Microsoft Server SQL (MSSQL). Just like Oracle, MSSQL is not an open-source DBMS software. Fortunately, several versions of MSSQL can be downloaded for free.
Advantages of MSSQL:
- It provides various versions, both free and paid, which can be downloaded as needed.
- Comprehensive user documentation, supported by a supportive community.
- Supports various cloud computing technologies, both third-party and Microsoft’s cloud.
Disadvantages of MSSQL:
- The paid version is very expensive, reaching Rp. 200 million for one package.
- Licensing policies are changing so that it has the potential to harm their users.
- Complicated data processing process, not very suitable for beginners.
MSSQL is suitable for:
- Large and enterprise-wide applications and systems, especially if you also use other Microsoft products.
Already Understand What is a DBMS, right?
In this article, you have learned a lot about DBMS. Starting from what a DBMS is, the concept of a DBMS, to the advantages and disadvantages of a DBMS. In essence, DBMS is software for building databases and processing data in them.
So, which example DBMS do you want to use? If you’re still a beginner, our advice is to start with MySQL, whose commands are simple. Fortunately, MySQL can be installed on various platforms for free.